Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (2022)

    Separable prefixes offer a large set of possibilities for the formation of new verbs. In general, these elements provide either a more precise, or a significantly different meaning of the modified verb. Thus they serve as the "verb complement" (see the page on German word order).

    English has an analogous, but less frequently applied concept. Consider, for example, what happens when various prepositions are added to a verb like "to throw": "to throw (money) around," "to throw (something) away (or out)," "to throw down (the gauntlet)," "to throw in (the towel)," "to throw (someone) over,""to throw (something) together," "to throw up."

    In German, most, but not all, separable prefixes are derived from prepositions and retain much of the meaning that they had in that form. As with inseparable prefixes, the conjugation of the original verb remains the same, but, as their name would imply, separable prefixes can be detached.

    Take the example of "durchfahren". While the prefix "durch-" can have various definitions, here it takes on the meaning of continuation through to an end. Hence "durchfahren" means: to pass through; to go non-stop. Note also the words durchgehend" and "Durchsage" in the followingannouncement in the Berlin subway:

    Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (1)Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (2)
    It is in effect "durchgehend"(continuously) from Dec. 17 - Feb. 10.
    Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (3)
    Die Züge fahren durch ["durchfahren" = to run non-stop];
    "Die Durchsage ([plural:] die Durchsagen)" = announcement [said over a loudspeaker]

Characteristics of Verbs with Separable Prefixes

  • In the verb's infinitive form, the prefix is attached: "durchfahren".

  • When spoken, the prefix is stressed: "DÚRCHfahren"

  • In the finite form, the prefix separates from the stem verb and goes to the end of the clause, the position of the verb complement: "Die Züge fahren ohne Halt durch" (The trains run through without stopping).

  • The prefix does not affect the verb's conjugation (e.g., "Die Züge fuhren ohne Halt durch" [The trains ran through without stopping]).

  • In the past participle, the prefix is attached, but, in contrast to inseparable prefixes, it does not replace the "ge-": "durchgefahren".

  • If the verb is in the form of an infinitive with "zu", the "zu" comes between the prefix and the original verb: "Er versucht durchzufahren" (He tries to drive straight through).

  • Verbs with prefixes (separable or inseparable)can also become nouns or adjectives and adverbs through the use of suffixes,e.g., "die Durchfahrt" (passage; thoroughfare; transit); "durchfahrbar" (able to be gotten through); "die Durchsage" (announcement).

  • In many cases, a verb with a prefix can have two forms: one in which the prefix is separable, and one in which it isinseparable. Here is the distinction between prefixes that are either separable or inseparable.

Examples of Verbs with Separable Prefixes

The following examples of separable prefixes and their meanings are merely representative:


    The prefix "ab-" usually - but not always - carries the notion of "away from". Some of the many possibilities:

    "abblenden" (to fade out, dim [lights]); "abbrechen" (to break off); "abbrennen" (to burn down); "abdanken" (to abdicate, resign);"abdrücken" (to pull the trigger; to shoot); "abfahren" (to drive off; to depart [by car]); "abfegen" (to brush off); "abhacken" (to chop off); "abhängen von" (to be dependent on);"abhören" (to wiretap); "abkommen" (to get away); "ablenken" (to divert); "abnehmen" (to remove; to take away);"abnutzen" (to wear out); "abriegeln" (to bolt [a door]; to close off); "abschaffen" (to do away with); "abschicken" (to send off);"absichern" (to secure); "abstimmen" (to vote); "abtreiben" (to abort); "abwehren" (to repulse; to fend off);"abziehen" (to deduct; to withdraw); "abzweigen" (to branch off).

Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (4)
Please keep this area clear for arriving and departing hotel guests.


    The prefix "an-" usually carries the meanings "at," "begin," "on," "onward," "to," or "toward". Some of the many possibilities:

    "anbauen" (to build on; to add; to cultivate [a crop]);"anbeißen" (to take a bite of); "anbinden" (to attach); "anbringen" (to fasten, install); "andauern" (to last, continue);"anfahren" (to drive up; to arrive [by car]); "anfangen" (to begin); "anfassen" (to take hold of); "anhängen" (to attach); "angreifen" (to attack);"anhaben" (to have on, wear); "anhalten" (to cause to stop); "ankommen" (to arrive); "anlächeln" (to smile at);"anlehnen" (to lean); "anmachen" (to attach; to make a pass at); "anmerken" (to notice; to note); "anpacken" (to take hold of); "anpfeifen" (to whistle for play to start);"anrechnen" (to take into account); "anschießen" (to shoot at and wound); "anschauen" (to look at); "anschneiden" (to cut into [cut the first piece of]);"ansehen" (to look at; to regard); "ansprechen" (to speak to; to initiate a conversation with); "anstreben" (to aspire to); "anstrengen" (to strain);"antippen" (to give a light tap to); "anzeigen" (to report to the authorities; to show); "anziehen" (to attract; to put on); "anzünden" (to ignite).


Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (5)
Wenn we're open, we're open. Now we're closed!

    The prefix "auf-" adds the meanings "on," "open," "out," "up," or "un-":

    "aufarbeiten" (to finish off; to reuse); "aufatmen" (to breathe a sigh of relief); "aufbauen" (to build up); "aufbessern" (to improve);"aufbewahren" (to keep, to store); "aufbinden" (to untie; to undo); "aufblühen" (to blossom forth); "aufbrauchen" (to use up);"aufbrechen" (to break open); "aufbrauchen" (to use up); "aufdecken" (to uncover); "aufdrehen" (to unscrew; to turn up, to wind up);"aufessen" (to eat up); "auffallen" (to stand out, be noticeable); "auffassen" (to grasp, undertsand); "auffliegen" (to fly up);"aufgeben" (to give up); "aufgehen" (to open);"aufklären" (to enlighten); "aufkommen" (to arise, spring for [costs]); "aufmachen" (to open); "aufpassen" (to look, to watch out);"aufpumpen" (to inflate); "aufrichten" (to erect); "aufschlagen" (to open [a book]); "aufschließen" (to unlock; to open up); "aufschneiden" (to cut open); "aufschreiben" (to write down); "aufsein" (to be open; to be up); "auftischen" (to serve up); "aufwachsen" (to grow up); "aufweichen" (to soften up); "aufziehen" (to wind up; to raise [children]); "aufzwingen" (to force upon).


    The prefix "aus-" adds the meanings "out," "outward," "extended," "completely," "missing":

    "ausbauen" (to extend; to improve; to expand); "ausbessern" (to fix; to touch up); "ausbeuten" (to exploit); "ausbilden" (to train);"ausbleiben" (to stay away; to fail to show up); "ausbreiten" (to spread out); "ausbrennen" (to burn out); "ausdehnen" (to extend; to expand);"ausdiskutieren" (to discuss thoroughly); "ausfahren" (to go for a drive; to take for a drive); "ausfallen" (to fail, to drop out; to be canceled);"ausführen" (to take for a walk; to carry out [work]; to put into practice); "ausfüllen" (to fill out [a form]); "ausgehen" (to go out);"ausgleichen" (to even out); "aushalten" (to endure; to withstand); "aushelfen" (to help out);"ausklammern" (to bracket out); "ausklingen" (to fade away [music]); "auslachen" (to laugh at); "ausleihen" (to lend);"ausmachen" (to turn off; to extinguish; to make a difference; to add up to); "auspressen" or "ausquetschen" (to press or squeeze out); "ausradieren" (to erase);"ausreichen" (to be sufficient); "ausrichten" (to pass on [a message]); "ausrotten" (to eradicate); "ausrüsten" (to equip); "sich ausschlafen" (to get a good sleep);"ausschließen" (to exclude; to lock out);"ausschütten" (to spill out; to tip out); "aussteigen" (to get out of [a car, train]); "aussehen" (to appear); "auswechseln" (to switch; to replace).


    The prefix "auseinander-" has the sense of "apart":

    "auseinanderbekommen" (to manage to get apart"); "auseinanderbrechen" (to break up; to break apart); "auseinanderfallen" (to fall apart);"auseinandergehen" (to part; to disperse); "auseinanderhaltem" (to distinguish; to keep apart); "sich mit etwas auseinandersetzen" (to come to terms with something); "sich mit jemandem auseinandersetzen" (to have it out with someone).


    The prefix "bei-" has the meanings of "along" or "with":

    "beibehalten" (to retain); "beibringen" (to teach); "beifügen" (to enclose [along with]); "beikommen" (to get hold of, deal with);"beiliegen" (to be enclosed [along with]); "beimischen" (to add [to a mixture]); "beisetzen" (to bury); "beitragen" (to contribute [to]);"beitreten" (to join); "beiwohnen" (to be present at)

"da-" and "dabei-":

    The prefixes "da-" and "dabei-" mean "there" — "dabei-" has the sense of staying with something that is going on:

    "dabeibleiben" (to stay there; to stick with); "dabeisein" (to be present at; to take part in); "dabeisitzen" or "dabeistehen" (to sit/stand there; to stick with); "dableiben" (to stay there); "dalassen" (to leave there).

"da-" or "dar-" (plus prepositions):

    Many of the prefixes listed here can be preceded by "da" (or, if the preposition begins with a vowel, "dar-"),effectively adding the notion of "it" to the meaning. In most such cases, the new meaning is clear, the equivalent of a prepositional phrase formed with "da-". For example, "es macht mir nichts aus" (I don't mind; it makes no difference to me) becomes "ich mache mir nichts daraus" (I don't worry about it).There are, however, some prefixes which require the "da-" (or "dar-") for logical purposes, e.g. "dazwischen-". Or, see the above examples of "dabei-".

    (Video) How to Use Separable Prefix Verbs (trennbare Verben) in German

    Here are just some examples of of the other particular meanings that can ensue through the addition of "da-" (or "dar-"):

    "sich daranmachen" (to set about it; to get down to it); "dahinterkommen" (to find out); "dazwischenreden" (to interrupt);


    "durch-" has the meaning of entering a process with purpose and coming out the other end.

    "durcharbeiten" (to work through); "durchbrechen" (to break through); "durchatmen" (to breathe deeply); "durchbraten" (to cook or roast all the way through);"durchdrehen" (to put through a grinder); "durchgehen" (to walk through); "sich durchfinden" (to find one's way through); "durchhalten" (to withstand, to endure);"durchfahren" (to drive straight through); "durchführen" (to implement; to carry out [a task]); "durchkämmen" (to comb through [hair]);"durchlassen" (to allow through); "durchschlüpfen (to slip through); "durchschneiden" (to cut through); "durchsprechen" (to talk through; to talk over; to talk out; to argue something out);"durchstoßen" (to knock a hole through); "durchwählen" (to dial directly); "durchziehen" (to pull through [an opening]).


    "ein-" has the meanings of "in", "into", "inward":

    "einatmen" (to inhale);"einberufen" (to conscript; to convene); "einbiegen" (to turn in); "einbrechen" (to break in; to cave in); "eincremen" (to put lotion on);"eindringen" (to enter forcibly into); "einfahren" (to drive in); "einfallen" (to collapse; to occur to); "eingehen" (to enter, to sink in; to shrink);"einkalkulieren" (to take into account); "einkaufen" (to shop); "einkellern" (to store in the cellar); "einklammern" (to put in brackets);"einladen" (to invite); "einlassen" (to allow to enter); "einleiten" (to introduce, begin); "einmarschieren" (to march in); "einordnen" (to put into order);"einparken" (to park [in a parking space]); "einreden" (to pursuade); "einsacken" (to pocket); "einschlagen" (to hammer in; to knock in); "einschneiden" (to make a cut in);"einschreiben" (to enroll); "einschreiten" (to intervene); "einspringen" (to jump in [to help out]); "einsteigen" (to enter [a vehicle]);"einstudieren" (to rehearse); "eintauchen" (to immerse; to dive in); "eintreten" (to enter); "einwerfen" (to throw in; to drop [a coin or letter]);"einwilligen" (to agree [to]; to consent); "einzahlen" (to pay in; to pay a deposit).


    "empor-" has the meaning of "upwards":

    "sich emporarbeiten" (to work one's way up); "emporblicken" (to raise one's eyes);"emporheben" (to lift up); "emporragen" (to tower above);"emporschießen" (to shoot up [grow suddenly]); "emporsteigen" (to climb up); "emporstreben" (to aspire).


    "entgegen-" means "toward" or "against":

    "entgegenarbeiten" (to work against); "entgegenkommen" (to approach; to accommodate; to meet halfway); "entgegennehmen" (to accept or receive);"entgegensetzen" (to contrast); "sich entegenstellen" (to oppose); "entgegentreten" (to confront); "entgegenwirken" (to counteract).


    "entlang-" means "along". It can be affixed to just about any verb of motion.

    "entlanggehen", "entlanglaufen" (to go/walk along)


    "entzwei-" means "asunder", "in half", "into two pieces":

    "entzweibrechen" (to break in two); "entzweigehen" (to come apart);"entzweireißen" (to rip in two); "entzweischlagen" (to smash into two pieces).


    "fehl-" has the sense of "wrong" or "false". It more often affixed to nouns (e.g. "die Fehlanzeige" [indication error],"die Fehlplanung" [bad planning]; "der Fehlschlag" [error; miss]; "der Fehltritt" [false step]). But there are also some verbs:

    "fehlbesetzen" (to miscast [in film or theater]); "fehlgehen" (to go wrong);"fehlstarten" (to make a false start)


    "fern-"means "far" and corresponds to the English "tele-". It more often affixed to nouns(e.g. "die Fernbahn" [long-distance rail]; "der Fernsprecher" [telephone]; "der Fernfahrer" [long-haul truck driver]; "das Ferngespräch" [long-distance phone call]; "das Fernrohr" [telescope]). But there are also some verbs:

    "fernbedienen" (to operate by remote control);"fernlenken" (to steer by remote control);"das würde mir fernliegen" (that would be the last thing I would do);"fernsehen" (to watch television)


    "fest-" means "firm" or "fixed". It often appears as an adverb or adjective(e.g. "fest glauben" [to believe firmly]). Not to be confused with "das Fest", as in "das Festessen" (banquet; feast).

    "festbeißen" (to bite into firmly); "festfrieren" (to ice over); "festhalten" (to hold on firmly);"festkleben" (to glue on; to be glued on); "festlaufen" (to run aground); "festlegen" (to establish); "festmachen" (to fasten firmly);"festnageln" (to nail down); "festnehmen" (to arrest); "festsitzen" (to be stuck).


    "fort-" means "away," "forth," or "onward" [as in "continuing"].

    "sich fortbewegen" (to move along; to move on);"fortbilden" (to continue [one's] education); "fortbringen" (to take away [for repair]); "sich fortentwickeln" (to continue to develop);"fortfahren" (to continue); "fortlaufen" (to run away); "fortpflanzen" (to propagate); "fortreden" (to continue talking)"fortsetzen" (to continue; to carry on with; to resume);"forttreiben" (to drive away; to drift away; to continue on with).

Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (6)Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (7)
keep the entrance clear


    "frei-" means "free" or "clear":

    (Video) Learn German | Trennbare Verben | Separable verbs | German for beginners | A1 - Lesson 37

    "freibekommen" (to get time off); "freigeben" (to release [a prisoner]; to allow [a currency] to float);"freihalten" (to keep clear [not block]); "freikämpfen" (to liberate); "freikaufen" (to ransom; to buy [a slave's] freedom);"freikommen" (to escape; to get away); "freilegen" (to uncover); "freisetzen" (to rlease)


    "gegenüber-" means "across from," "opposite:"

    "gegenüberliegen" (to face, to be across from); "gegenübersitzen" (to sit facing, to sit across from);"gegenüberstehen" (to stand facing; to be confronted with); "gegenüberstellen" (to confront, to compare).


    "gleich-" means "equal":

    "gleichbleiben" (to stay the same);"gleichkommen" (to equal; to be tantamount to);"gleichmachen" (to make equal);"gleichsetzen" (to equate; to treat as equivalent)


    "heim-" means "(to) home":

    "heimbegleiten" (to accompany home);"heimfahren" (to drive home);"heimfinden" (to find one's way home);"heimgehen" (to go/walk home);"heimkehren" (to return home);"heimkommen" (to come home);

    But also: "heimsuchen" (to afflict);"heimzahlen" (to pay back; to get even with).

"her-," "herab-," "heran-," herauf-," "heraus-, "herbei-," "herein-," "herüber-," "herum-," "herunter-," "hervor-":

    "her- indicates motion toward the speaker, "hither". It can also combine with a number of other prefixes, making their direction more precise. Note that theseprefixes do not necessarily replace prepositions:

      Rapunzel zieht den Prinzen zu sich herauf.Rapunzel pulls the prince up (to her).
      Er fällt vom Baum herab.He falls down out of the tree.Die Kinder marschierten um das Haus herum.The children march around the outside of the house.
    "herbestellen" (to summon); "herfahren" (to travel/drive here); "herführen" (to bring here; to lead here);"herkommen" (to come here; to come from); "herstellen" (to manufacture; to produce); "hertragen" (to carry [to] here [in this direction]).

    "herab-" means "down from" or "off from". Again, the direction is toward the point of view of the speaker:

    "herabfallen" (to fall from); "herabfließen" (to flow down); "herabhängen" (to hang down);"herabsetzen" or "herabmindern" (to reduce; to disparage); "herabsehen [auf]" (to look down [on]); "herabsinken" (to sink down; to descend); "herabsteigen" (to climb down; to descend);"herabstürzen" (to plummet down).

    "heran-": has the meaning of "approaching toward [the point of view of the speaker]":

    "heranbringen" (to bring toward; to bring up to [a certain point]);"heranführen" (to bring up [to a place]; to lead here);"herangehen" (to go up closer); "herankommen" (to draw near);"heranreifen" (to mature).

    "herauf-" means "up from," "out of" — toward the point of view of the speaker:

    "heraufarbeiten" (to work one's way up); heraufbeschwören (to cause; to bring about; to evoke);"heraufführen" (to bring up here; to lead up here); "herauftragen" (to carry up here);"heraufziehen" (to pull up; to be approaching).

    "heraus-" means "from," "out of" — toward the point of view of the speaker:

    "herausbitten" (to ask [someone] to come outside); "herausbringen" (to bring out; to publish; to launch; to make known);"herausfahren" (to drive out of); "herausgeben" (to hand over; to hand out);"heraushängen" (to hang out); "herauskriegen" (to get out of, find out);"herausfordern" (to challenge, provoke); "sich herausstellen" (to turn out [to be]); "herausziehen" (to pull out).

    "herbei-" means "(towards) over here":

    "herbeibringen" (to bring over); "herbeiholen" (to fetch); "herbeilaufen" (to to come running up); "herbeirufen" (to call over);"herbeischaffen" (to get); "herbeisehnen" (to long for);

    "herein-" means to "come in", i.e. into a real or metaphorical space that marks the speaker's point of orientation:

    "hereinbitten" (to invite in);"hereinbringen" (to bring in); "hereinfallen" (to fall into; to be duped); "hereinholen" (to bring in);"hereinkommen" (to come in); "hereinschneien" (to snow in; to appear out of the blue); "hereinspazieren" (to stroll in);

    "herüber-" means "over in this direction":

    "herüberfahren" (to drive over here); "herüberkommen" (to come over here); "herüberschauen" (to look over here); "herüberschicken" (to send over here).

    "herum-" means "around." As with the English "around," it indicates either a specific direction or a lack of direction:

    Das Brautpaar geht um den Altar herum.
    The wedding couple walks around the altar.
    Er schaut sich nur herum.
    He's just looking around.
    Die Kinder marschierten im Haus herum.
    The children marched around inside the house.
    Wir stolpern hier nur herum.
    We're just stumbling around here.
    Ein guter Gebrauchtwagenhändler kann jeden herumkriegen.
    A good used-car saleman can win over anybody [make him or her come around].

    "herunter-" means "down" or "downwards" (towards the speaker):

    "herunterbekommen" (to be able to eat; to manage to get down); "herunterfallen" (to fall down);"herunterhandeln" (to bargain down); "herunterholen" (to fetch down);"herunterkommen" (to come down; to go to the dogs); "herunterschlucken" (to swallow);"herunterschrauben" (to ratchet down; to dumb down); "heruntersteigen" (to climb down).

    "hervor-" means "out from":

    "hervorgehen" (to emerge); "hervorgehen" (to lure out); "hervorheben" (to emphasize);"hervorragen" (to project; to jut out; to stand out); "hervorrufen" (to call to come out); "hervorstecken" (to stick out);"hervortreten" (to emerge; to step forth); "sich hervortun" (to excel); "sich hervorwagen" (to dare to come out).

"hin-," "hinab-," "hinauf-," "hinaus-," "hinein-," "hinunter-," "hinweg-"

    "hin-" indicates motion away from the speaker, "thither"; also "down."Like her-, it can also combine with a number of other prefixes, making their direction more precise. Note that theseprefixes do not necessarily obviate the need for prepositions:

      Wir steigen auf den Berg hinauf.We're climbing up the mountain.
      Er hat mein Buch zum Fenster hinausgeworfen.He threw my book out of the window.
    "hinarbeiten" (to work towards); "hinbekommen" (to wangle; to manage to do); "hinbegleiten" (to accompany thither);"hinbewegen" (to move toward); "hinbiegen" (to arrange); "hinblättern" (to shell out); "hinbringen" (to take there);"hindeuten" (to point to); "hinfahren" (to go/drive there); "hinfallen" (to fall down); "hinfinden" (to find one's way to);"hinführen" (to lead to); "hingeben" (to devote; to sacrifice); "hingeraten" (to get there); "hinhalten" (to hold out; to delay);"hinhorchen" (to listen closely); "hinknien" (to kneel down); "hinkommen" (to get there); "hinkriegen" (to manage to take care of; to make [something] function);"vor sich hinleben" (to live passively, without purpose); "hinlegen" (to lay down); "hinlenken" (to steer toward);"hinnehmen" (to accept; to put up with); "hinreichen" (to be sufficient); "hinreißen" (to delight; to fascinate); "hinrichten" (to execute; to put to death); "hinschicken" (to send there); "hinschleppen" (the drag there);"sich hinsetzen" (to sit down); "hintragen" (to carry there).

    "hinab-" and "hinunter-" both mean "down" (away from the speaker):

    "hinabblicken/hinunterblicken" (to look down);"hinabfallen/hinunterfallen" (to fall down);"hinablassen/hinunterlassen" (to lower down [e.g. with a rope]);"hinunterspülen" (to wash down).

    "hinauf-" indicates an upward direction away from the speaker and can be affixed to any appropriate verb of motion:

    (Video) VGGL 32) trennbare Präfixe - separable prefixes

    "sich hinbewegen" (to move upwards);"hinaufgehen" (to walk up; to walk upstairs; to go upwards); "hinaufschauen" (to look up); etc.

    "hinaus-" means "from," "out of" — away from the speaker. It takes on a number of figurative meanings, as well:

    "hinausbringen" (to take out); "hinausekeln" (to drive out in disgust);"hinausgehen" (to go out); "auf etwas hinauslaufen" (to lead to something);"hinausragen" (to project beyond); "hinausschieben" (to postpone);"über etwas hinauswachsen" (to grow beyond/outgrow something); "hinauswerfen" (to throw out); "hinauswollen" (to want to go out);"hinauszögern" (to draw out; to delay).

    "hinein-" means "into" — away from the speaker:

    "hineindrängen" (to fall into);"hineindürfen" (to be allowed in);"hineinfallen" (to fall into);"hineinfließen" (to flow into);"hineingehen" (to enter);"hineinreichen" (to reach into);"hineingehen" (to enter);"hineinreiten" (to ride in [on horseback]);"hineinschneiden" (to cut into);"sich hineineversetzen" (to put oneself into [someone's situation])"hineinwollen" (to want to go in).

    "hinweg-" has the sense of "beyond" or "past":

    "jemandem über etwas hinweghelfen" (to help someone to get over something);"über etwas hinwegkommen" (to get over something);"sich über etwas hinwegsetzen" (to disregard something);


    "hinterher-" has the sense of following behind (see also "nach"):

    "hinterherhinken" (to limp along behind); "hinterherkommen" (to follow after);"hinterherlaufen" (to run after); "hinterherschicken" (to send after; to send on);


    "hinzu-" carries the sense of adding something:

    "hinzufügen / hinzusetzen" (to add; to append);"hinzugesellen" (to join);"hinzukommen" (to be added to);"hinzuverdienen" (to earn [something] extra);"hinzuziehen" (to consult);


    "hoch-," when affixed to a verb, indicates an upward motion or position:

    "jemanden hochbringen" (to help someone up); "hochhalten" (to hold up [in a raised position]); "hochklettern" (to climb up);"hochkrempeln" (to roll up [a sleeve]); "hochlegen" (to support in a raised position); "hochrechnen" (to extrapolate; to project [a forecast]);"hochschießen" (to shoot upwards).


    "los-" can indicate the beginning of an action or carry the sense of "away / off" or "un-":

    "losbinden" (to untie); "losfahren" (to drive off); "losgehen" (to commence); "loskommen" (to get away);"loskriegen" (to get rid of); "loslassen" (to let go of); "loslegen" (to get started; let it rip);"sich losreißen" (to break free of); "etwas loswerden" (to get rid of something); "loswollen" (to want to be off).


    "mit-" can be attached to any appropriate verb to indicate joining or participating in the activity, somewhat akin to the English "along":

    "mitarbeiten" (to collaborate; to work along with); "mitbringen" (to bring along); "mitdürfen" (to be allowed to go along);"mitfahren" (to ride with); "etwas mitgeben" (to give something [for the purpose of taking it along]);"mithalten" (to keep up with); "mithelfen" (to help out); "mithören" (to listen in; to eavesdrop);"mitkommen" (to come along); "mitmachen" (to participate); "mitnehmen" (to take along);"mitreden" (to participate in the conversation; to have a say); "mitschreiben" (to take notes); "mitsingen" (to sing along);"mitspielen" (to take part in the game); "mitteilen" (to communicate; to inform); "mitwirken" (to be involved).


    "nach-" offers a variety of meanings. Attached to a verb of motion, it can mean to "follow after" (see also hinterher-);in some cases, the act of "following" can designate a testing or other kind of follow-up of a previous action; "nach-" can also indicate imitation or else a reduction, or lessening:

    "nachaffen" (to mimic; to ape); "nachahmen" (to imitate); "nacharbeiten" (to do make-up work);"nachbessern" (to touch up; to improve by making adjustments); "nachbestellen" (to order more [of something]); "nachdrucken" (to reprint);"nachempfinden / nachfühlen" (to empathize; to share feelings with); "nacherzählen" (to retell);"nachfeiern" (to celebrate at a later date); "nachfolgen" (to succeed; to follow); "nachforschen" (to investigate); "nachfüllen" (to refill; to top off);"nachgeben" (to give way; to give in); "nachgehen" (to follow after; to look into [an issue]; to run slow [clock]);"nachhaken" (to dig deeper; to ask further about);"nachholen" (to catch up on; to make up for; to fetch later); "nachkommen" (to come later); "nachlassen" (to diminish; to loosen);"nachmachen" (to imitate; to counterfeit); "nachreichen" (to hand in later);"nachrücken" (to move up [to the next position after it has become vacant]); "nachschauen / nachsehen" (to look up; to check up);"nachspielen" (to play during time that has been added on ["injury time" in soccer]); "nachsprechen" (to repeat after);"nachstellen" (to readjust); "nachtrauern / nachweinen" (to mourn or bemoan the passing of); "nachvollziehen" (to comprehend);"nachweisen" (to provide proof of something that has been committed); "nachwirken" (to have a lasting effect);"nachzählen" (to recount [count again]).


    "nebenher-", affixed to a verb of motion, means "alongside of":

    "nebenherfahren" (to drive alongside); "nebenhergehen" (to walk alongside); "nebenherlaufen" (to run alongside; to proceed at the same time).
Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (8)Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (9)
Despondent, sad, hopeless, sleeping badly? Then you might be suffering from depression.


    "nieder-" means "down" or "lower":

    "niederbrennen" (to burn down); "niederbrüllen" (to shout down); "niedergehen" (to drop down; to go down; to land);"niederhalten" (to oppress); "niederknien" (to kneel down); "niederlassen" (to lower); "sich niederlassen" (to ensconce oneself);"niederreißen" (to tear down); "niederschießen" (to gun down); "niederschlagen" (to knock down; to suppress; to make despondent);"niederwerfen" (to overcome; to defeat); "sich niederwerfen" (to prostrate oneself).


    "statt-" does not have a specific meaning as a prefix and appears in just two verbs:

    "stattfinden" (take place); "stattgeben" (to accede to; to grant; to allow").


    "um-" can carry a variety of meanings including "around," "down," and "over."It also can denote substantial sorts of change:

    (Video) German Verbs with the Prefix "AB-" | Super Easy German (159)

    "umändern" (to change; to change around); "umarbeiten" (to rework); "umbenennen" (to rename);"umblicken" (to look around); "umbringen" (to kill); "umbuchen" (to re-book [travel plans]);"umdenken" (to rethink; to revise one's opinion); "umdrehen" (to turn around); "umfallen" (to fall over/down);"umfassen" (to grasp; to include; to embrace); "umformen" (to recast); "umfüllen" (to transfer [something] into [another container]);"umfunktionieren" (to change the function of); "umgraben" (to dig over; to turn over [dirt]); "umhängen" (to re-hang [curtains]; to drape around);"umhauen" (to knock down; to knock over); "umkehren" (to turn around); "umkippen" (to tip over);"umklammern" (to clutch); "umkommen" (to get killed); "umkreisen" (to orbit); "umladen" (to transfer [a load]);"umlernen" (to learn to think differently); "umrahmen" (to frame); "umrechnen" (to convert [e.g. into different units]);"umrühren" (to stir); "umschalten" (to change; to switch [gears, channels]); "umsetzen" (to transfer; to transpose; to implement; to transact; to transform); "umsteigen" (to transfer [change buses, trains, planes]);"umstimmen" (to persuade [to change one's mind]); "umschulen" (to retrain; to switch to another school); "umspulen" (to rewind);"umstellen" (to rearrange); "umtauschen" (to exchange); "umwerfen" (to knock over);"umziehen" (to move [to change address]); "sich umziehen" (to change clothes).

    Additionally, "sich + um-" can indicate a general kind of activity:

    "sich umhören" (to keep one's ears open); "sich umfragen" (to ask around); "sich umsehen / umschauen" (to look around).


    "vor-"has the meanings "before," "forward," "pre-," and "pro-":

    "sich vorarbeiten" (to work one's way forward); "vorbauen" (to make provision); "vorbehalten" (to reserve);"vorbereiten" (to prepare); "vorbeugen" (to prevent; to bend forward); "vorbringen" (to propose; to bring forward; to produce);"vordrängen" (to push forward); "vorfahren" (to drive on ahead; to drive up in front [of a building]);"vorfallen" (to happen); "vorführen" (to bring forward; to perform); "vorgeben" (to pretend);"vorgehen" (to proceed; to go first); "vorlegen" (to present); "jemandem vorgreifen" (to jump in ahead of someone);"vorhaben" (to intend); "vorherrschen" (to predominate); "vorkommen" (to happen; to seem); "vorladen" (to summon);"vorlegen" (to present; to place before); "vorneigen" (to lean forward); "vorprogrammieren" (to pre-program);"vorrücken" (to move forward); "vorschlagen" (to propose; to suggest); "vorsetzen" (to put before);"vorsingen" (to sing [in front of people]); "vorsorge" (to make provisions); "vorspielen" (to play [music in front of people]);"vortragen" (to perform; to present [a speech, song, etc.]); "vorziehen" (to prefer; to pull forward; to draw [a curtain]).

"voran-," "voraus-," "vorbei-," "vorüber-, "vorweg-":

    Further modifications can be made to "vor-"

    "voran-" means "ahead":

    "vorangehen" (to go ahead);"vorankommen" (to make progress);

    "voraus-" means "in advance":

    "voraussein" (to be in advance; to be ahead); "vorausberechnen" (to calculate in advance);"vorausgehen" (to go on ahead); "voraussagen" (to predict);"voraussehen" (to foresee); "voraussein" (to be in advance; to be ahead);"voraussetzen" (to assume).

    "vorbei-" means "past":

    "vorbeifahren" (to drive past); "vorbeigehen" (to walk past); "vorbeikommen" (to drop in);"vorbeilassen" (to let by); "vorbeireden" (to talk past); "vorbeischießen" (to miss [the target]).

    "vorüber-" means "past" or "by":

    "vorübereilen" (to hurry past); "vorüberfahren" (to drive by); "vorüberfliegen" (to fly by);"vorübergehen"" (to go by); "vorüberziehen" (to pass by).

    "vorweg-" means "in anticipation," "pre-emptively":

    "vorwegnehmen" (to anticipate; to pre-empt; to forestall); "vorwegsagen" (to say in anticipation);"vorwegschicken" (to send off in anticipation).


    "weg-" means "away":

    "wegblasen" (to blow away); "wegbleiben" (to stay away); "wegbringen" (to take away);"etwas wegdenken" (to imagine that something is not there); "wegfahren" (to drive off);"wegfegen" (to sweep away); "wegführen" (to lead off); "weggeben" (to give away);"weggehen" (to go away); "wegjagen" (to chase away); "wegkommen" (to get away);"wegkönnen" (to be able to get away; to be able to leave); "weglaufen" (to run away);"wegmüssen" (to have to leave); "wegräumen" (to clear away); "wegsehen" (to look away);"wegstecken" (to put away; to withstand [a blow]); "wegwerfen" (to throw away); "wegwischen" (to erase; to wipe away);"wegziehen" (to move away; to pull away).
Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (10)Separable Prefixes (trennbare Vorsilben) (11)
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    "weiter-" means "further" (see also "fort-"):

    "weiterbestehen" (to continue to exist); "weiterentwickeln" (to develop further); "weitererzählen" (to tell further; to continue a narration); "weiterführen" (to continue);"weitergehen" (to move along); "weiterkommen" (to get further; to make progress); "weiterleben" (to continue living);"weitermachen" (to carry on); "weiterreden / weitersprechen" (to continue talking); "weitersagen" (to pass [the word] on); "weiterziehen" (to move along).


    "wieder-" means "again":

    "wiederbekommen" (to get back); "wiederbeleben" (to resuscitate); "wiederbringen" (to bring back); "wiederentdecken" (to rediscover); "wiedergeben" (to give back; to repeat); "wiederherstellen" (to restore; to reestablish); "wiederholen" (to repeat);"wiederkäuen" (to ruminate); "wiederkehren" (to return); "wiedersehen" (to see again); "wiedervereinigen" (to reunite).


    "zu-" means "closed," "to," "towards," "upon":

    "zubauen" (to block off); "zubilligen" (to grant; to allow); "zubinden" (to tie; to tie up);"zubringen" (to bring/take to); "zudecken" (to cover up, tuck in); "zudrücken" (to press shut);"zuerkennen" (to bestow; to confer [on]); "zufahren" (to drive/ride towards);"zufassen" (to grab at); "zufließen" (to flow toward); "zugehören" (to belong to);"zugeben" (to admit to; to confess); "zugreifen" (to take hold; to help oneself [to something]);"zukommen" (to approach); "zulassen" (to authorize);"zumachen" (to close); "zunehmen" (to increase; to gain weight); "zuziehen" (to pull shut).


    "zurecht-" conveys the idea of "correct," "proper."

    "sich zurechtfinden" (to find one's way; to get one's bearings);"zurechtkommen mit" (to cope with);"zurechtlegen" (to lay out in readiness);"zurechtmachen" (to get {something] ready);"zurechtweisen" (to rebuke; to reprimand);


    "zurück-" means "back," or "re-":

    "zurückbleiben" (to stay behind);"zurückblenden" (to flash back [film]);"zurückdrehen" (to turn back);"zurückerhalten" (to get back; to be given back);"zurückerobern" (to recapture);"zurückführen" (to trace back);"zurückgeben" (to give back; to return);"zurückmüssen" (to go back; to return);"zurückgehen" (to have to go back);"zurücklehnen" (to lean back);"zurückschlagen" (to hit/strike back);"zurückschrecken" (to shrink back/from; to recoil);"zurücksetzen" (to reverse; put back);"zurückweisen" (to refuse; to send back).


(Video) German Verbs With the Prefix "AUS" | Super Easy German 161

    "zusammen-" means "together":

    "zusammenarbeiten" (to work together);"zusammenbeißen" (to bite together);"zusammenbauen" (to assemble);"zusammenfassen" (to summarize);"zusammenführen" (to bring together);"zusammengehören" (to belong together);"zusammenklappen" (to fold up, shut);"zusammenkommen" (to meet, come together);"zusammenpassen" (to be suited for each other);"zusammensetzen" (to seat/put together);"zusammenstoßen" (to collide, clash);"zusammenzählen" (to add up);"zusammenziehen" (to pull together).


What are Trennbare prefixes in Verben? ›

Verbs that are made up of a verb and a prefix are called trennbare verben (separable verbs). There are quite a few trennbare verben in German! How do separable verbs work in a sentence? In the present tense, the prefixes are separated from the verb and placed at the very end of the sentence.

What are separable prefixes? ›

Separable prefixes offer a large set of possibilities for the formation of new verbs. In general, these elements provide either a more precise, or a significantly different meaning of the modified verb. Thus they serve as the "verb complement" (see the page on German word order).

What is separable prefix German? ›

In German, most, but not all, separable prefixes are derived from prepositions and retain much of the meaning that they had in that form. As with inseparable prefixes, the conjugation of the original verb remains the same, but, as their name would imply, separable prefixes can be detached.

Is Fernsehen Trennbare verb? ›

Verbs such as fernsehen and anschalten are known as separable verbs (trennbare Verben). A separable verb has a main part and a prefix. In the present tense, the prefix is separated and moves to the end of the sentence in the present tense.

Is Einladen a Trennbare verb? ›

Einladen is a special verb. Not only is it a stem-vowel changing verb that gets an umlaut in the second and third person (du and er/sie/es forms), but it is also a separable prefix verb--when conjugated, the prefix ein breaks off from the stem laden and moves to the end of the sentence.

Is Uber a separable prefix? ›

There are several prefixes that are sometimes separable and sometimes inseparable: "durch-", "über-", "um-", "unter-", "voll-", "wieder-".

What are separable and inseparable verbs? ›

There are two types of phrasal verbs. Separable phrasal verbs can be broken up by other words, while inseparable phrasal verbs cannot be separated by other words.

Is ent a separable prefix? ›


These prefixes are be-, ent- (or emp-), er-, ge-, ver-, and zer-.

What is separable phrasal verb give 5 examples in sentence? ›

Separable Phrasal Verbs in English
Phrasal VerbMeaningExample Sentence
turn (someone/something) downreject or refuseShe got a job offer from a big company, but she turned it down to pursue a career in music.
write (something) downwrite something on paperCould you tell me your e-mail address again? I didn't write it down.
13 more rows

Is check in separable or inseparable? ›

GRAMMAR & STRUCTURE Separable and Inseparable Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal VerbSeparable or InseparableMeaning
Call upSeparableCall someone on the telephone
Catch upInseparableTo become equal or reach the same level
Check in, check intoInseparableRegister at a hotel or travel counter
Check outInseparableLeave a hotel
81 more rows

How do you know if a verb is separable in German? ›

You can often tell if a verb is separable by its prefix. Verbs with certain prefixes, for example: ab-, an-, auf-, aus-, ein-, mit-, nach-, weg-, zu- are always separable. In contrast, verbs with certain prefixes, for example: be-, ent-, er-, ver-, zer- are not separable.

What are the rules for separable verbs in German? ›

Separable verbs (Trennbare Verben) and inseparable verbs (Untrennbare Verben) in German are verbs whose meaning is altered by the addition of a prefix. Prefixes that are separable are separated from their verb in the conjugated form e.g. anstehen – ich stehe an (to queue – I queue).

What are the German prefixes? ›

The most common permanent prefixes found in German are ver-, ge-, be-, er-, ent- (or emp-), and zer-. The meaning of the permanent prefixes does not have a real system; the alteration in meaning can be subtle or drastic.

Is Trotzdem a Nebensatz? ›

In this case, trotzdem will have the same meaning as the English word nevertheless or nonetheless. We can use it when we have the main sentence (Hauptsatz) that introduces the topic, and a secondary sentence (Nebensatz) that describes an unexpected prosecution of the main sentence.

Is Gelesen Sein or haben? ›

In the case of lesen, haben is used as the auxiliary verb. The past participle of lesen is gelesen.
Lesen Conjugation in Present Perfect Tense (Perfekt)
ich habe gelesenI have read./I did read.
du hast gelesenYou have read./You did read.
1 more row
4 Nov 2021

Is Verschlafen a separable verb? ›

Unlike the others, this isn't a separable verb. This means that, when you conjugate it, the prefix must remain attached to the verb, The word verschlafen means 'to oversleep'.

Why do we use Trennbare verben? ›

Trennbare verben or the separable verbs are those verbs whose meaning is changed by the addition of a prefix. As we use trennbare verb in a sentence , the later part of the verb stays in the second position and is conjugated whereas the prefix goes to the end of the sentence.

Is Mitkommen a separable verb? ›

Mitkommen means "to come" or "to come along." The prefix mit- is stressed which indicates that it is a separable prefix verb. Notice in this present tense construction: the verb is in the second position and the separable prefix is at the end.

Is Remercier an irregular verb? ›

Remercier is a regular verb. In the present tense, the conjugation is Je remercie, tu remercies, il remercie, nous remercions, vous remerciez, ils remercient.

What is Bolt prefix? ›

Turn a key or latch in your front door to slide the bolt closed, and you bolt the door. Slide it open, and you unbolt it. This verb comes from the prefix un- ("reversal") and bolt, a word that's been used to mean "part of a lock which springs out" since around 1400.

What is prefix in Dutch? ›

prefix, the ~ voorvoegsel, het ~ Noun.

What is a separable phrasal verb? ›

A separable Phrasal verb means that it can be separated by another word that goes in between the verb and the particle. This word is usually the subject that the phrasal verb is referring to. For example: 'I need to put my jacket on'-> In this case, 'jacket' is in between the phrasal verb.

What is example of inseparable? ›

Inseparable sentence example. Their gifts were inseparable from themselves. He also describes them as "inseparable rights." But in man the two principles are consciously present together, not, however, in inseparable union, as they are in God, but with the possibility of separation.

What is separable method? ›

The method for solving separable equations can therefore be summarized as follows: Separate the variables and integrate. Example 1: Solve the equation 2 y dy = ( x 2 + 1) dx. Since this equation is already expressed in “separated” form, just integrate: Example 2: Solve the equation.

What are separable functions? ›

A function of 2 independent variables is said to be separable if it can be expressed as a product of 2 functions, each of them depending on only one variable.

Is care for separable? ›

Care For is a non-separable phrasal verb and has 2 definitions.

Is Mitnehmen separable? ›

Reminder: separable verbs have two parts, a prefix and a verb stem, which are separated in a standard sentence. For example: mitnehmen → Ich nehme viel Gepäck mit. to take with → I take a lot of luggage with me.

Is Umziehen separable? ›

Lesson Summary

The verb umziehen means 'to move' or 'to relocate'. It's a separable verb, so the prefix um- gets separated from the verb and put at the end of the sentence.

What are the 20 phrasal verbs? ›

20 popular phrasal verbs
  • Break up. Meaning: to end a relationship. ...
  • Bring up. Meaning: to mention something. ...
  • Carry on. Meaning: to continue doing what you have been doing. ...
  • Carry out. Meaning: to perform a task or assignment. ...
  • Come across. ...
  • Find out. ...
  • Get along. ...
  • Get over.
26 Nov 2015

What are the 50 phrasal verbs? ›

Top 50 English phrasal verbs
  • Back down. To stop doing something or admit you were wrong because people oppose you. ...
  • Blow up. To explode. ...
  • Break down. To suddenly stop functioning (used for machinery) ...
  • Bring up. To mention something. ...
  • Bump into. To see or meet someone unexpectedly. ...
  • Call off. To cancel. ...
  • Check on. ...
  • Check out.
10 Nov 2022

What are the 40 phrasal verbs? ›

40 Phrasal Verbs in Use
  • drop in. My brother likes to drop in without so much as a telephone call. ...
  • drop off. I have to drop off this book at the library.
  • fall down. I'm so clumsy. ...
  • fall in. He falls in love with every girl.
  • fall off. I can't ride a bicycle. ...
  • fall over. Look how intoxicated he is! ...
  • figure out. ...
  • fill in.

How do you use separable verbs? ›

Separable verbs follow the same pattern as other verbs (weak or strong), but you have to do something extra: chop off the prefix. conjugate the verb as usual. put the prefix at the end of the clause.

Do we have separable verbs in English? ›

Examples are: take off, put off and set off, pay back, give back, bail out, ran up, put up, bring up, clean up etc. Phrasal verbs made with adverb particles are usually separable. As the name itself indicates the two parts of a separable phrasal verb are separable.

Is keep on separable? ›

Keep On is a separable phrasal verb and has 2 definitions.

Is hand in separable? ›

Hand In is a non-separable phrasal verb and has 1 definition.

Is take over inseparable? ›

Take Over is a separable phrasal verb and has 3 definitions.

Is fill in separable? ›

Fill In is a separable phrasal verb and has 3 definitions.

What is an example of a separable verb in German? ›

If you conjugate the separable verbs (ich stehe auf, du stehst auf, er steht auf etc.), then the German prefixes are separated and go to the end of the main clause. Ich stehe früh auf. Du stehst nicht gerne früh auf.

Is Shut up separable? ›

Shut Up is a separable phrasal verb and has 1 definition.

How do you use separable verbs in past tense in German? ›

Some verbs don't add ge- to the beginning to form a past participle.
Separable verbs consist of two parts - a main verb and a preposition, eg:
  1. auf + räumen > aufräumen (to tidy up)
  2. an + ziehen > anziehen (to put on)
  3. auf + stehen > aufstehen (to get up)

Is give back separable or inseparable? ›

It is a separable phrasal verb that can be used in two ways: 1. When you return something to someone.

What are the 15 prefixes? ›

The prefixes are: de-, dis-, ex-, im-, in-, mis-, non-, pre-, pro-, re-, un-, and uni-.

What are the 8 prefixes? ›

1795 – The original 8 SI prefixes that were officially adopted: deca, hecto, kilo, myria, deci, centi, milli, and myrio, derived from Greek and Latin numbers.

What are the 4 types of prefixes? ›

The four most common prefixes are dis-, in-, re-, and un-. (These account for over 95% of prefixed words.)

What are the 4 types of affixes in spoken languages? ›

31-32) affixes are form or bound morpheme that used to reduce the word and he also classifies affixes into four types, such prefixes, suffixes, infixes and circumfix.

What are prefixes in German? ›

The most common permanent prefixes found in German are ver-, ge-, be-, er-, ent- (or emp-), and zer-. The meaning of the permanent prefixes does not have a real system; the alteration in meaning can be subtle or drastic.

What are French prefixes? ›

The French prefix in- and its variants il-, im-, and ir- are added to adjectives, adverbs, and nouns to create antonyms. The English equivalents are un- and in-.

What are the 5 basic elements of language? ›

Linguists have identified five basic components (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics) found across languages.

How many types of prefixes are there in English? ›

35 Common Prefixes in English.

What are the 7 elements of language? ›

Language courses include 7 language components that aim at developing learners' language competency. These are vocabulary, grammar, functions, reading, listening, speaking, and writing.

What are 20 example of prefix? ›

20 Examples of Prefixes
de-, dis-opposite of, notdepose, detour, dehydrated, decaffeinated, discord, discomfort, disengage
un-oppositeuncover, unlock, unsafe, unemployment
semi-halfsemicircle, semiprecious, semicolon, semifinal
re-again; backrewrite, reread, return
mid-middlemidterm, Midwest, midstream, midway, midnight
11 more rows

What is a prefix give 4 examples? ›

The most common prefixes
down-reduce or lowerdowngrade, downhearted
extra-beyondextraordinary, extraterrestrial
hyper-extremehyperactive, hypertension
il-, im-, in-, ir-notillegal, impossible, insecure, irregular
24 more rows

Does What 3 words work in France? ›

French: What3words ignores accents as not everyone types them. This means it can't use words that are only differentiated by accents, such as côte and côté.

How is 99 in French? ›


Why does German have ß? ›

In German orthography, the letter ß, called Eszett (IPA: [ɛsˈtsɛt] ess-TSET) or scharfes S (IPA: [ˌʃaʁfəs ˈʔɛs], lit. "sharp S"), represents the /s/ phoneme in Standard German when following long vowels or diphthongs. The name Eszett combines the names of the letters of ⟨s⟩ (Es) and ⟨z⟩ (Zett) in German.

What are the rules of using prefixes? ›

Adding prefixes in English doesn't change the spelling of the word. All you have to do to spell a word correctly with the prefix is write the two together without a space between them.


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